Monday, September 30, 2019

Professional Issues in Nursing Essay

As a nurse, I make judgement that would affect patient’s health every day, I am aware that I have a great duty to ensure my patient’s safety to maintain the public trust (Chitty & Black, 2011). After learning this module, it helped me acquire adequate knowledge to better manage legal and ethical issues at work. For the sake of providing a high quality of care to my patients, I must be knowledgeable in both (Croke, 2003). Nowadays, the public is aware of legal issues and organized information is available through the internet. As a result, medical litigation claims have been rapidly increasing. Most claims against nurses are due to medical negligence (Tay, 2001). I am liable for my own practice, and if I fail to act as a reasonable prudent person in certain conditions, I may be liable for medical negligence (Chitty & Black, 2011). Research shows several errors leading to nursing negligence. For instance, a nurse fails to follow standards of care, fails to use equipment in a responsible manner, fails to communicate, fails to document, fails to assess and monitor and fails to act as a patient’s advocate (Croke, 2003). In 1998, Hurwitz states in order to prove medical negligence, the patient plaintiff must prove: The defendant nurse owned the plaintiff a duty of care and breached in this duty of care by failing to provide the required reasonable standard of care. Thus this breach of duty of care caused the plaintiff damage. I would like to discuss a case encounter in my practice for example to reflect my knowledge. A 55 year old patient admitted for chest pain and on telemetry monitoring. This patient requested for shower, a nurse removed his telemetry and was ask to assist the patient during shower, but the patient insisted to shower on his own. Then the nurse left the patient alone without instructing him to call for help if he felt any discomfort. After a while, the nurse went back to check, patient was found collapsed on the toilet floor. The issue that came across my mind is â€Å"If I am that nurse, am I negligent?† Learning point 1: Duty of care A patient went to the hospital and hospital is agreeable for patient’s treatment, there will be a contract between the hospital and patient. The hospital has the duty to provide quality treatment to the patient. Nurse as the employee, if he acts badly, it can be reasonably foreseen that the  patient may be injured. Therefore the nurse owes a duty of care in treating the patient (Staunton & Whyburn, 1996). In this scenario, I have a bond with my patient; therefore I owe a duty to provide reasonable and competent care to my patient (Hurwitz, 1998). Learning point 2: Standard of care The nursing standard of care is what the reasonably prudent nurse did in the same circumstances (Staunton & Whyburn, 1996). In Singapore, we have the standard of care and code of ethics for nurses and midwifes as our guideline for practice, it is our responsibility to follow the standard ( Singapore nursing board, 2011). In this case, the patient’s determination to shower without assistance, is his autonomy (Tay, 2001). According to value statement of code of ethics, I respected the patient’s individual needs and privacy, and also respected and promoted patient’s autonomy by allowing patient to do so (Singapore Nursing Board, 2011). In this case, there is a conflict between respecting patient’s autonomy and providing care in a responsible and accountable manner. I need to make a choice between two alternatives. There is no absolutely right or wrong decision (Keilman & Dontje, 2002). The decision made by me is to respect the patient’s autonomy, but this may violate the principle of non-maleficence as this decision of allowing patient to shower alone may delay the time to find out patient has collapsed, then it unintentionally caused harm, so I failed to provide in a responsible and accountable care (Chitty & Black, 2011). If I choose to provide care in a responsible and accountable manner, I should have insisted to accompany patient, but by doing so I may violate patient’s autonomy. According to standard of care of nurses and midwives, I should communicate with client effectively and provide appropriate information to the patient (Singapore nursing board, 2011). I should inform patient that he is on high risk of developing heart attack and shall be monitored closely. Failure to communicate effectively leads a breach of duty. Learning point 3: Avoid medical negligence To avoid medical negligence, I think the most important is to prevent the breach of duty of care. According to Bolam test, I will not breach the duty of care if I followed the standard of care (Hurwitz, 1998). In order to meet the standard of care, I need to be a knowledgeable and a safe practitioner,  be technically competent, and keep up-to-date with current practice (Chitty & Black, 2011). We must be familiarized with the standard in nursing practice. When we use them to guide our daily practice, we are acting in the best interest of the patient (Singapore Nursing Board, 2011). When you do decision making, ask yourself, â€Å"have you followed the standard of care?† Nowadays, â€Å"the nurses are also being encouraged to act as advocates for their patients, to safeguard standards of care and to speak out where those standards may be at risk.† (McHale & Tingle, 2001, p36). I think, our role as an advocate needs to improve, as nurses do not have the courage to interr ogate the doctor’s order. Clinical improvement If this scenario happens again, what do you think will help the patient? I feel there are some good strategies to adhere: Set hospital policy and educate the staff to provide comprehensive information (Chitty & Black, 2011), for example, they must understand that for clients on telemetry monitoring, patient should not be left alone. The patient must be warned that he is at risk of heart attack. To persuade patient for his desired action, and for his own safety, he should allow assistance. If patient is stubborn and insists to shower without supervision, delegate a staff to standby at the shower door, the hospital need to ensure adequate staff patient ratio (Chitty & Black, 2011). References Chitty, K. K., & Black, B. P. (2011). Professional nursing: concepts & challenges (6th ed.). Maryland Heights, Mo.: Saunders/Elsevier. Croke, E. M., (2003). Nurses, Negligence, and Malpractice. American Journal of Nursing, 103(9). 54-63. Retrieved from Hurwitz, B. (1998). Clinical guidelines and the law: negligence, discretion, and judgement. UK: Radcliffe Medical Press. McHale, J. V., & Tingle, J. (2001). Law and nursing (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth/Heinemann. Singapore Nursing Board. (2011). Codes of Ethics & Professional Conduct. Retrieved from

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Frostbite Chapter 1

One I DIDN'T THINK MY DAY could get any worse until my best friend told me she might be going crazy. Again. â€Å"I†¦ what did you say?† I stood in the lobby of her dorm, leaning over one of my boots and adjusting it. Jerking my head up, I peered at her through the tangle of dark hair covering half my face. I'd fallen asleep after school and had skipped using a hairbrush in order to make it out the door on time. Lissa's platinum blond hair was smooth and perfect, of course, hanging over her shoulders like a bridal veil as she watched me with amusement. â€Å"I said that I think my pills might not be working as well anymore.† I straightened up and shook the hair out of my face. â€Å"What does that mean?† I asked. Around us, Moroi hurried past, on their way to meet friends or go to dinner. â€Å"Have you started †¦Ã¢â‚¬  I lowered my voice. â€Å"Have you started getting your powers back?† She shook her head, and I saw a small flash of regret in her eyes. â€Å"No †¦ I feel closer to the magic, but I still can't use it. Mostly what I'm noticing lately is a little of the other stuff, you know†¦I'm getting more depressed now and then. Nothing even close to what it used to be,† she added hastily, seeing my face. Before she'd gone on her pills, Lissa's moods could get so low that she cut herself. â€Å"It's just there a little more than it was.† â€Å"What about the other things you used to get? Anxiety? Delusional thinking?† Lissa laughed, not taking any of this as seriously as I was. â€Å"You sound like you've been reading psychiatry textbooks.† I actually had been reading them. â€Å"I'm just worried about you. If you think the pills aren't working anymore, we need to tell someone.† â€Å"No, no,† she said hastily. â€Å"I'm fine, really. They're still working†¦just not quite as much. I don't think we should panic yet. Especially younot today, at least.† Her change in subject worked. I'd found out an hour ago that I would be taking my Qualifier today. It was an examor rather, an interviewall novice guardians were required to pass during junior year at St. Vladimir's Academy. Since I'd been off hiding Lissa last year, I'd missed mine. Today I was being taken to a guardian somewhere off-campus who would administer the test to me. Thanks for the notice, guys. â€Å"Don't worry about me,† Lissa repeated, smiling. â€Å"I'll let you know if it gets worse.† â€Å"Okay,† I said reluctantly. Just to be safe, though, I opened my senses and allowed myself to truly feel her through our psychic bond. She had been telling the truth. She was calm and happy this morning, nothing to worry about. But, far back in her mind, I sensed a knot of dark, uneasy feelings. It wasn't consuming her or anything, but it had the same feel as the bouts of depression and anger she used to get. It was only a trickle, but I didn't like it. I didn't want it there at all. I tried pushing farther inside her to get a better feel for the emotions and suddenly had the weird experience of touching. A sickening sort of feeling seized me, and I jerked out of her head. A small shudder ran through my body. â€Å"You okay?† Lissa asked, frowning. â€Å"You look nauseous all of a sudden.† â€Å"Just†¦nervous for the test,† I lied. Hesitantly, I reached out through the bond again. The darkness had completely disappeared. No trace. Maybe there was nothing wrong with her pills after all. â€Å"I'm fine.† She pointed at a clock. â€Å"You won't be if you don't get moving soon.† â€Å"Damn it,† I swore. She was right. I gave her a quick hug. â€Å"See you later!† â€Å"Good luck!† she called. I hurried off across campus and found my mentor, Dimitri Belikov, waiting beside a Honda Pilot. How boring. I supposed I couldn't have expected us to navigate Montana mountain roads in a Porsche, but it would have been nice to have something cooler. â€Å"I know, I know,† I said, seeing his face. â€Å"Sorry I'm late.† I remembered then that I had one of the most important tests of my life coming up, and suddenly, I forgot all about Lissa and her pills possibly not working. I wanted to protect her, but that wouldn't mean much if I couldn't pass high school and actually become her guardian. Dimitri stood there, looking as gorgeous as ever. The massive, brick building cast long shadows over us, looming like some great beast in the dusky predawn light. Around us, snow was just beginning to fall. I watched the light, crystalline flakes drift gently down. Several landed and promptly melted in his dark hair. â€Å"Who else is going?† I asked. He shrugged. â€Å"Just you and me.† My mood promptly shot up past â€Å"cheerful† and went straight to â€Å"ecstatic.† Me and Dimitri. Alone. In a car. This might very well be worth a surprise test. â€Å"How far away is it?† Silently, I begged for it to be a really long drive. Like, one that would take a week. And would involve us staying overnight in luxury hotels. Maybe we'd get stranded in a snowbank, and only body heat would keep us alive. â€Å"Five hours.† â€Å"Oh.† A bit less than I'd hoped for. Still, five hours was better than nothing. It didn't rule out the snowbank possibility, either. The dim, snowy roads would have been difficult for humans to navigate, but they proved no problem for our dhampir eyes. I stared ahead, trying not to think about how Dimitri's aftershave filled the car with a clean, sharp scent that made me want to melt. Instead, I tried to focus on the Qualifier again. It wasn't the kind of thing you could study for. You either passed it or you didn't. High-up guardians visited novices during their junior year and met individually to discuss students' commitment to being guardians. I didn't know exactly what was asked, but rumors had trickled down over the years. The older guardians assessed character and dedication, and some novices had been deemed unfit to continue down the guardian path. â€Å"Don't they usually come to the Academy?† I asked Dimitri. â€Å"I mean, I'm all for the field trip, but why are we going to them?† â€Å"Actually, you're just going to a him, not a them.† A light Russian accent laced Dimitri's words, the only indication of where he'd grown up. Otherwise, I was pretty sure he spoke English better than I did. â€Å"Since this is a special case and he's doing us the favor, we're the ones making the trip.† â€Å"Who is he?† â€Å"Arthur Schoenberg.† I jerked my gaze from the road to Dimitri. â€Å"What?† I squeaked. Arthur Schoenberg was a legend. He was one of the greatest Strigoi slayers in living guardian history and used to be the head of the Guardians Councilthe group of people who assigned guardians to Moroi and made decisions for all of us. He'd eventually retired and gone back to protecting one of the royal families, the Badicas. Even retired, I knew he was still lethal. His exploits were part of my curriculum. â€Å"Wasn't†¦ wasn't there anyone else available?† I asked in a small voice. I could see Dimitri hiding a smile. â€Å"You'll be fine. Besides, if Art approves of you, that's a great recommendation to have on your record.† Art. Dimitri was on a first-name basis with one of the most badass guardians around. Of course, Dimitri was pretty badass himself, so I shouldn't have been surprised. Silence fell in the car. I bit my lip, suddenly wondering if I'd be able to meet Arthur Schoenberg's standards. My grades were good, but things like running away and getting into fights at school might cast a shadow on how serious I was about my future career. â€Å"You'll be fine,† Dimitri repeated. â€Å"The good in your record outweighs the bad.† It was like he could read my mind sometimes. I smiled a little and dared to peek at him. It was a mistake. A long, lean body, obvious even while sitting. Bottomless dark eyes. Shoulder-length brown hair tied back at his neck. That hair felt like silk. I knew because I'd run my fingers through it when Victor Dashkov had ensnared us with the lust charm. With great restraint, I forced myself to start breathing again and look away. â€Å"Thanks, Coach,† I teased, snuggling back into the seat. â€Å"I'm here to help,† he replied. His voice was light and relaxedrare for him. He was usually wound up tightly, ready for any attack. Probably he figured he was safe inside a Hondaor at least as safe as he could be around me. I wasn't the only one who had trouble ignoring the romantic tension between us. â€Å"You know what would really help?† I asked, not meeting his eyes. â€Å"Hmm?† â€Å"If you turned off this crap music and put on something that came out after the Berlin Wall went down.† Dimitri laughed. â€Å"Your worst class is history, yet somehow, you know everything about Eastern Europe.† â€Å"Hey, gotta have material for my jokes, Comrade.† Still smiling, he turned the radio dial. To a country station. â€Å"Hey! This isn't what I had in mind,† I exclaimed. I could tell he was on the verge of laughing again. â€Å"Pick. It's one or the other.† I sighed. â€Å"Go back to the 1980s stuff.† He flipped the dial, and I crossed my arms over my chest as some vaguely European-sounding band sang about how video had killed the radio star. I wished someone would kill this radio. Suddenly, five hours didn't seem as short as I'd thought. Arthur and the family he protected lived in a small town along I-90, not far from Billings. The general Moroi opinion was split on places to live. Some argued that big cities were the best since they allowed vampires to be lost in the crowds; nocturnal activities didn't raise so much attention. Other Moroi, like this family, apparently, opted for less populated towns, believing that if there were fewer people to notice you, then you were less likely to be noticed. I'd convinced Dimitri to stop for food at a twenty-four-hour diner along the way, and between that and stopping to buy gas, it was around noon when we arrived. The house was built in a rambler style, all one level with gray-stained wood siding and big bay windowstinted to block sunlight, of course. It looked new and expensive, and even out in the middle of nowhere, it was about what I'd expected for members of a royal family. I jumped down from the Pilot, my boots sinking through an inch of smooth snow and crunching on the gravel of the driveway. The day was still and silent, save for the occasional breath of wind. Dimitri and I walked up to the house, following a river rock sidewalk that cut through the front yard. I could see him sliding into his business mode, but his overall attitude was as cheery as mine. We'd both taken a kind of guilty satisfaction in the pleasant car ride. My foot slipped on the ice-covered sidewalk, and Dimitri instantly reached out to steady me. I had a weird moment of d? ¦j? ¤ vu, flashing back to the first night we'd met, back when he'd also saved me from a similar fall. Freezing temperatures or not, his hand felt warm on my arm, even through the layers of down in my parka coat. â€Å"You okay?† He released his hold, to my dismay. â€Å"Yeah,† I said, casting accusing eyes at the icy sidewalk. â€Å"Haven't these people ever heard of salt?† I meant it jokingly, but Dimitri suddenly stopped walking. I instantly came to a halt too. His expression became tense and alert. He turned his head, eyes searching the broad, white plains surrounding us before settling back on the house. I wanted to ask questions, but something in his posture told me to stay silent. He studied the building for almost a full minute, looked down at the icy sidewalk, then glanced back at the driveway, covered in a sheet of snow broken only by our footprints. Cautiously, he approached the front door, and I followed. He stopped again, this time to study the door. It wasn't open, but it wasn't entirely shut either. It looked like it had been closed in haste, not sealing. Further examination showed scuffs along the door's edge, as though it had been forced at some point. The slightest nudge would open it. Dimitri lightly ran his fingers along where the door met its frame, his breath making small clouds in the air. When he touched the door's handle it jiggled a little, like it had been broken. Finally, he said quietly, â€Å"Rose, go wait in the car.† â€Å"But wh† â€Å"Go.† One wordbut one filled with power. In that single syllable I was reminded of the man I'd seen throw people around and stake a Strigoi. I backed up, walking on the snow-covered lawn rather than risk the sidewalk. Dimitri stood where he was, not moving until I'd slipped back into the car, closing the door as softly as possible. Then, with the gentlest of movements, he pushed on the barely held door and disappeared inside. Burning with curiosity, I counted to ten and then climbed out of the car. I knew better than to go in after him, but I had to know what was going on with this house. The neglected sidewalk and driveway indicated that no one had been home for a couple days, although it could also mean the Badicas simply never left the house. It was possible, I supposed, that they'd been the victims of an ordinary break-in by humans. It was also possible that something had scared them offsay, like Strigoi. I knew that possibility was what had made Dimitri's face turn so grim, but it seemed an unlikely scenario with Arthur Schoenberg on duty. Standing on the driveway, I glanced up at the sky. The light was bleak and watery, but it was there. Noon. The sun's highest point today. Strigoi couldn't be out in sunlight. I didn't need to fear them, only Dimitri's anger. I circled around the right side of the house, walking in much deeper snowalmost a foot of it. Nothing else weird about the house struck me. Icicles hung from the eaves, and the tinted windows revealed no secrets. My foot suddenly hit something, and I looked down. There, half-buried in the snow, was a silver stake. It had been driven into the ground. I picked it up and brushed off the snow, frowning. What was a stake doing out here? Silver stakes were valuable. They were a guardian's most deadly weapon, capable of killing a Strigoi with a single strike through the heart. When they were forged, four Moroi charmed them with magic from each of the four elements. I hadn't learned to use one yet, but gripping it in my hand, I suddenly felt safer as I continued my survey. A large patio door led from the back of the house to a wooden deck that probably would have been a lot of fun to hang out on in the summer. But the patio's glass had been broken, so much so that a person could easily get through the jagged hole. I crept up the deck steps, careful of the ice, knowing I was going to get in major trouble when Dimitri found out what I was doing. In spite of the cold, sweat poured down my neck. Daylight, daylight, I reminded myself. Nothing to worry about. I reached the patio and studied the dark glass. I couldn't tell what had broken it. Just inside, snow had blown in and made a small drift on pale blue carpet. I tugged on the door's handle, but it was locked. Not that that mattered with a hole that big. Careful of the sharp edges, I reached through the opening and unlocked the handle's latch from the inside. I removed my hand just as carefully and pulled open the sliding door. It hissed slightly along its tracks, a quiet sound that nonetheless seemed too loud in the eerie silence. I stepped through the doorway, standing in the patch of sunlight that had been cast inside by opening the door. My eyes adjusted from the sun to the dimness within. Wind swirled through the open patio, dancing with the curtains around me. I was in a living room. It had all the ordinary items one might expect. Couches. TV. A rocking chair. And a body. It was a woman. She lay on her back in front of the TV, her dark hair spilling on the floor around her. Her wide eyes stared upward blankly, her face paletoo pale even for a Moroi. For a moment I thought her long hair was covering her neck, too, until I realized that the darkness across her skin was blooddried blood. Her throat had been ripped out. The horrible scene was so surreal that I didn't even realize what I was seeing at first. With her posture, the woman might very well have been sleeping. Then I took in the other body: a man on his side only a couple feet away, dark blood staining the carpet around him. Another body was slumped beside the couch: small, child-size. Across the room was another. And another. There were bodies everywhere, bodies and blood. The scale of the death around me suddenly registered, and my heart began pounding. No, no. It wasn't possible. It was day. Bad things couldn't happen in daylight. A scream started to rise in my throat, suddenly halted when a gloved hand came from behind me and closed over my mouth. I started to struggle; then I smelled Dimitri's aftershave. â€Å"Why,† he asked, â€Å"don't you ever listen? You'd be dead if they were still here.† I couldn't answer, both because of the hand and my own shock. I'd seen someone die once, but I'd never seen death of this magnitude. After almost a minute, Dimitri finally removed his hand, but he stayed close behind me. I didn't want to look anymore, but I seemed unable to drag my eyes away from the scene before me. Bodies everywhere. Bodies and blood. Finally, I turned toward him. â€Å"It's daytime,† I whispered. â€Å"Bad things don't happen in the day.† I heard the desperation in my voice, a little girl's plea that someone would say this was all a bad dream. â€Å"Bad things can happen anytime,† he told me. â€Å"And this didn't happen during the day. This probably happened a couple of nights ago.† I dared a peek back at the bodies and felt my stomach twist. Two days. Two days to be dead, to have your existence snuffed outwithout anyone in the world even knowing you were gone. My eyes fell on a man's body near the room's entrance to a hallway. He was tall, too well-built to be a Moroi. Dimitri must have noticed where I looked. â€Å"Arthur Schoenberg,† he said. I stared at Arthur's bloody throat. â€Å"He's dead,† I said, as though it wasn't perfectly obvious. â€Å"How can he be dead? How could a Strigoi kill Arthur Schoenberg?† It didn't seem possible. You couldn't kill a legend. Dimitri didn't answer. Instead his hand moved down and closed around where my own hand held the stake. I flinched. â€Å"Where did you get this?† he asked. I loosened my grip and let him take the stake. â€Å"Outside. In the ground.† He held up the stake, studying its surface as it shone in the sunlight. â€Å"It broke the ward.† My mind, still stunned, took a moment to process what he'd said. Then I got it. Wards were magic rings cast by Moroi. Like the stakes, they were made using magic from all four of the elements. They required strong Moroi magic-users, often a couple for each element. The wards could block Strigoi because magic was charged with life, and the Strigoi had none. But wards faded quickly and took a lot of maintenance. Most Moroi didn't use them, but certain places kept them up. St. Vladimir's Academy was ringed with several. There had been a ward here, but it had been shattered when someone drove the stake through it. Their magic conflicted with each other; the stake had won. â€Å"Strigoi can't touch stakes,† I told him. I realized I was using a lot of can't and don't statements. It wasn't easy having your core beliefs challenged. â€Å"And no Moroi or dhampir would do it.† â€Å"A human might.† I met his eyes. â€Å"Humans don't help Strigoi† I stopped. There it was again. Don't. But I couldn't help it. The one thing we could count on in the fight against Strigoi was their limitationssunlight, ward, stake magic, etc. We used their weaknesses against them. If they had othershumanswho would help them and weren't affected by those limitations †¦ Dimitri's face was stern, still ready for anything, but the tiniest spark of sympathy flashed in his dark eyes as he watched me wage my mental battle. â€Å"This changes everything, doesn't it?† I asked. â€Å"Yeah,† he said. â€Å"It does.†

Saturday, September 28, 2019

1st Autism Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

1st Autism - Assignment Example Stereotypes about autism are more than just laziness or incorrect information in the arguments. They actively affect people in the spectrum and harm them. They form a view on autism and sharply narrow perceptions and expectations. Autistic person would hardly achieve something in his or her life, until they are considered to be "in their own world", "devoid of emotion" and so on. Unethical practices. Stereotypes do not just erroneously attribute autistic certain features. They always assume that these features once and for all set and unchangeable. But in reality it is not. The biggest problem with any stereotype is that it denies the fundamentally important fact that autistics may vary. People with autism adapt to society, find their destiny, their friends and interests (Grinker, 2010). But it is very private for them it is accompanied by a kind of "victim complex": many autistic individuals think that they have no right to seem too happy. After all, children with "autism" have no chance of happiness. All this propaganda worked: many families do not see any future for their autistic children, if the way to cure autism is found. But the problem may be just psycho-somatic – as, according to some investigations, placebo use may reduce the behavioral symptoms (Kroeger & Brown, 2011). Thus, many autistic people have very low sense of self-confidence just because haw autism is being depicted in society. As a result, according to many polls, half of the adults with autism were exposed to violence and abuse on the part of those whom they knew personally. It speaks of the "appalling prevalence" of violence and exclusion among adults with autism. But this problem of stereotypes also has its solution. Children who interacted with children with disabilities or who watched how they communicate with other children without disabilities, developed a healthier attitude towards disabilities, comparing with children without such

Friday, September 27, 2019

Introduction To Leviticus Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Introduction To Leviticus - Research Paper Example This has been the subject of controversy over years. To the proponents of documentary hypothesis, the book of Leviticus, which is also one of the Pentateuch books was not written by one person, Moses, but instead was a product of various others. Of course, there exists archeological and historical fabrications and evidence which explicitly supports this line of thought. While the debate about documentary evidence continues, there is also compelling evidence to believe the former. It is the intent of this paper to explore arguments against documentary evidence and to show Moses’ authenticity and single handedness in drafting Leviticus. The Hebrew derives the title of Leviticus from the initial word in it Wayyiqra’, which when translated implies â€Å"and He [the Lord] called† (1:1). The use of the conjunction â€Å"and† describes that Leviticus is a continuation of the previous chapter, Exodus, the flow of thought in this case is continuous and there is no break.1 At the same time, the English title of the book is derived from the word â€Å"Vulgate† which is a Latin version, which referred to this book as Liber Leviticus. This Latin title has been suggested as having the same meaning as Leuitikon, which implies â€Å"of relation to the Levites.† From the above analysis, it therefore seems quite correct that the title used in this book is appropriate, since the book has Mosaic Covenant that again relates to the Levites, or to be precise to the Israelites, delivered to them by Moses. The overriding theme contained in the book of Leviticus is worship. Moses later re-introduced the theme of worship in the later chapters of the bible in Exodus, but this theme was only concretized in Leviticus. The book illustrates how sinful redeemed Israelites could enjoy a new renewed spiritual relationship with their creator. It also shows how the Israelites could maintain this Holy relationship with God through worship. One of the main r evelations that are given in Leviticus is the nature of sin. From the analysis of other chapters, it can be seen that God under estimated man’s ability to commit sin. God first initiated this in Genesis and Exodus, and thus used Leviticus to clarify this sinful nature of man. Additionally, God exposes the theme of atonement in Leviticus. Atonement can be understood as the price of man’s sin. God in Leviticus removed the sins of Israelites until a final sacrifice was paid for sins. God continuously accepted the price of sin through sacrifice until a final atonement was made through Jesus Christ. Through atonement then man could be allowed to enter into a Covenant with God. For this situation, three things had to be given to justify man’s sinful nature. This book has been written by Moses because it contains God revelations to Moses in which he recorded in Leviticus after he renewed the Covenant with Israel (Exod. 34:1-28). This book is solely unique as it contain s God’s instructions to Moses. Andrew A. Bonar in his Commentary on Leviticus thus argues, â€Å"There is no book in the whole compass of that inspired Volume which the Holy Spirit has given us, that contains more of the very words of God than Leviticus. It is God that is the direct speaker in almost all the pages; His gracious words are recorded in the most original manner that they were uttered.†2 As seen in other similar literary analysis, Leviticus

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Do employment consultants need to be trained when dealing with the Essay

Do employment consultants need to be trained when dealing with the unemployed - Essay Example An employment consultant is the link between a job seeker and the company where a vacancy exists. The consultant has the unenviable job of not only matching the skill sets of the applicant with the position, but also to judge the mental make-up and socio-psychological responses of the applicant in different situations. A highly qualified and well-experienced person might be unsuitable for an opening because of his temperament. On the other hand, a lesser qualified person, but with a different temperament might be right for the job. Not everyone is capable of managing people. The person needs to be outgoing, be able to perceive the unspoken needs of the clients and co-workers. Similarly, not everyone is suited for research. A candidate might have the required qualifications, but no desire for knowledge or curiosity. In my opinion, a lesser qualified person, but with an intense desire for knowledge would be better suited for the job. Thus, it would not be only the degrees and certificates that need to be verified during an interview, but also the attunement of the candidate for the mentioned opening. The social background of the candidate and exposure to various situations also holds a key to the candidate’s behavior under different life-situations. Then again, there could be gender differences. Aspirations and dedication to different kinds of jobs could be different in men and women. Though traditionally, men might be suited for a particular job, an enterprising woman might be able to do more justice to it. Similarly, while society might consider a particular job as â€Å"lady’s job, some men might be more suitable for the same. Thus, it is the consultant’s job to sense and discover these aptitudes in the candidates and offer them suitable openings. (iii)The ways in which we look at the world, are known in the literature as â€Å"paradigms†. These influence how we perceive problems and their solutions, and what we choose to

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

From a Name to a Number - A Holocaust Survivor's Autobiography by Essay

From a Name to a Number - A Holocaust Survivor's Autobiography by Alter Wiener - Essay Example This is a unique piece of writing not easily commendable. In this autobiography, Alter Wiener talks about how his adolescent was captured by disturbing recalls of the concentration camps of the Polish. It is traumatic and distressing compared to any situation one can face in his or her life. It is a heart taking narration of once again a dark chapter in the history of the world we all came across. We think we do know history, but all our ideas about history are shattered once we read about the debt of immortality and fear these people suffered. It is a firsthand account of the brutal events of the history which we sometimes don’t even want to know about (Wiener, 2008). The book is an unpolished and rough read for the post-holocaust period. This book is a proof of those disturbing events that were part of WWII. The message explains that prejudice can lead to such devastating events. Also, tolerance is very important part of each person’s life. It not only divulges the story of Wiener but also discloses many replies to his story. It reveals, wanders sexual adventures I don’t really want to know about. Considering it is a journal which was written by a person who was sent to a concentration camp at an early age and destitute from anything more than a grade school education until the time of his release. Even though the author talks about him being uneducated and deprived, if I read the book thoroughly I think that he is a well educated and very intelligent person (Wiener, 2008). But that is just my opinions. Regardless of them, I believe the book is a true recount of the concentration camps describing every minute detail. I do feel pain for the author, and for all the people who died or survived these camps. The trauma of the camps continued centuries and even today’s generation is adversely affected by its aftermaths.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Java Game Programming, any future Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Java Game Programming, any future - Essay Example The main feature of Java is that it is a platform independent language. The program can be written only once in Java and can be compiled in any operating system. To be simple it is write once, run anywhere. It is an object oriented, multithreaded programming language. (King 2000 ). Although a lot has been said about its exponential advancement rates, Java still remains to be a secondary language in field of game development. Legacy languages like C and C++ still remains to be the most preferred language for game developers. This is said in accordance with only considering desktop and playstation games, since they are the major players in the gaming industry. But, most of the mobile games that are used today are being developed in Java. One can find a number of games in the internet that are built using Java Applets. It can be used in developing interactive games in web as well as mobile phones. So this creates a conundrum of thoughts. The following research deals with this conundrum and aims to explain as to why Java is still not yet as successful as its predecessors and tries to list out the demerits that disable it from attaining that status. It also aims at explaining the future of Java in game development, which certainly looks promising provided, its disa dvantages are overcome. . (Marner, 2002) A game can be defined as software with the sole pur... (Marner, 2002) Games can be categorized based on the environment in which they run. They are basically classified into computer based, console based, web based and mobile based games. Current scenario in the market shows that Windows PC dominates the computer based category and Sony does the same in console categories. Since these two fields dominate the gaming world, the entire discussion is done considering only the above two technologies.(Mencher et al, 2004) Java - the language Before identifying the tools and technologies used with Java language, it is necessary to know few basic things about the language itself. First of all, it is based on Object Oriented Programming Concepts, commonly known as OOPS concepts. It involves higher abstraction level then C++ and provides more user flexibility. But still, it is far easier than C++ to learn. The important difference between these two languages is that in Java, there are no pointers and hence the learning and understanding is easier in Java. Basically, it consists of a Java platform, made up of two components; Java Virtual Machine and Java libraries. This platform instructs on how the Java program is run irrespective of the Operating System (OS) in which it is installed. The performance related issues that generally arise is due to the virtual machine. But with vast improvement in Java execution, several technologies have been developed which can be used in hand with the virtual environment. These include the H otSpot, Just-In-Time compilers and other embedded technologies. . (Marner, 2002) The current platform edition is Java SE 6 which has enhanced the user interface of application

Monday, September 23, 2019

Prison Gangs and Youth Street Gangs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Prison Gangs and Youth Street Gangs - Essay Example Prison gangs and youth street gangs are different from lifestyle to group operations. Obviously, street gangs can do the operations freely. Prison gangs don't. The latter might not be difficult to organize though; and because these people are experienced, they can think and act more grave actions. The fact that they are in prison is not a restriction to the gang. "The criminal activity of the S.T.G. does not only exist inside the confines of the walls but has flowed to the outside world."1 Such criminal acts involve money, drugs, guns, exploitation of women and children, gambling, illegal trading, and power. Compare to prison gangs, youth street gangs are popular only for misconduct actions such as bullying, vandalism or graffiti, destroying someone else's property, fighting with another street gang, etc. These acts are considered unscrupulous and disgraceful but not notorious. However, guidance of elders is highly advisable because once these kids be tolerated; they might end up getting more serious troubles that could lead them in a series of crimes.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Change in Schools Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Change in Schools - Essay Example However, the judgments made on these ruling have raised various questions with regards to whether the courts had the interests of the children at heart. According to California State Laws, courts, in their endeavors of making various decisions concerning children including custody and placement, permanency and safety planning, education and parental rights determination are faced with the burden of ensuring that their decisions are in the best interests of children (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2010). One notable court case, the Eliezer Williams, et al., vs. State of California, et al. case, filed in San Francisco in 2000 as a class action against the State of California and its education agencies such as CDE, California Department of Education by more than 110 students. The suit was based on the fact that the education agencies in California failed in providing students with equal access to safe and decent school facilities, instructional material and qualified teachers. In 2004, this case was decided, and it was settled that additional funding was to be allocated by the state to be used for improving the quality of instructional materials, facilitating access to decent and safe facilities and hiring of qualified teachers, in the light of ensuring that the academic performance indices of schools in tire one and two significantly improves (California Department of Education, 2012). In this particular case, it is clear that the settlement reached by the court, was in the best inte rest of the children-students-who will benefit from equal access to safe and decent school facilities, instructional material and qualified teachers. In another separate court case ruling with regards to change in schooling with regards to lower crime rate, the Robles-Wong v. California case in 2010, settled that parents are allowed to remove their children from one school to another on the basis of crime rate (Kemerer, Sansom, & Sansom, 2009). The ruling of this

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Hydrogen Summary Essay Example for Free

Hydrogen Summary Essay * This is how hydrogen fuel cells work: 1. Gas stored in tanks 2. Atoms reach anode 3. Become hydrogen ion and a free electron 4. Ion goes through electrolyte layer 5. Hydrogen ion passes, but free electron does not 6. Free electron runs through external circuit from anode (-) to cathode (+) 7. Current of electrons creates electricity 8. Hydrogen ion enters cathode and combines with oxygen to become water which is better for the ecosystem because water vapor is not dangerous. * Why hydrogen as fuel? Efficient: not expensive to fill and it gives you more range. Emission Conscious: Hydrogen fuel cell cars release water vapor back in the atmosphere and don’t damage it by releasing C02 just like the other fuels. Fueling Up/Range: Since hydrogen is stored and highly compressed tanks it can hold more than any other fuel and has a bigger range. Global Economic Competitive Edge: Hydrogen is not as expensive as gasoline and it would cost you about  ½ of the money that you used to fill your car with gasoline to fill your car with hydrogen. * Better than other fuels: Hydrogen VS Ethanol: * Ethanol releases CO2 while hydrogen releases water vapor * Ethanol competes with the food producers(corn in the US, sugar cane in Brazil)and hydrogen doesn’t compete with anyone. * Ethanol is inefficient to produce while hydrogen is efficient. Hydrogen VS biodiesel: * Biodiesel solidifies in cold temperatures and it is harder to travel through the tubes(high viscosity) while hydrogen doesn’t solidify. * Biodiesel releases the most C02 out of all the fuels. Hydrogen releases water vapor * The range for biodiesel cars is 10% less than propanol cars . Hydrogen cars have 25% more range than biodiesel cars and 15% more than propanol cars. Hydrogen VS propanol: * Propanol has problems in high climates due to viscosity and the fuel solidifying while hydrogen cars don’t have problems with this. * Propanol releases C02 in the atmosphere, hydrogen releases water vapor. * The range for a propanol car is 15% less than a hydrogen car.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Synthesis Of Aspirin And Oil Biology Essay

Synthesis Of Aspirin And Oil Biology Essay Esterification is the reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols to produce esters. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid was formed by reacting salicylic acid and acetic anhydride while Methylsalicylate was formed from salicylic acid and methanol, both in the presence of H2SO4 responsible for the removal of -OH to form an ester and donates H+ to protonate the salicylic acid. The reaction mixture in the synthesis of aspirin should be heated in temperature between 70-90Â °C for the formation of acetylsalicylic acid crystals that was further collected using vacuum filtration with cold water to wash out the impurities and further produced a 57% yield product. The synthesized methylsalicylate resulted to a minty odor that is used mainly as ointment or cream for treating muscle pains and sprains. Test using FeCl3 to verify the purity of the synthesized aspirin resulted to a violet-colored solution in acetylsalicylic acid making it an impure product because of the presence phenol group that must not be present in the structure. However, positive result in methylsalicylate turned the solution from clear to dark-green and further to a purple solution due to the presence of phenol group. The results of the experiment are therefore accurate and useful in knowing the importance and uses of organic products and knowing the process of esterification involving carboxylic acids and alcohols. __________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid from a family of chemicals known as salicylates is known to be an anti-inflammatory drug and used as a pain reliever (1). On the other hand, oil of wintergreen or methylsalicylate is an external analgesic used to treat muscle aches, sprain, and strains having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects as well (4). Both the aspirin and methylsalicylate can be produced from salicylic acid, a natural occurring chemical in plants, consisting of two functional groups carboxylic acid and phenol. The synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and methylsalicylate from salicylic acid results in the formation of ester in the process called esterification where an acid reacts with an alcohol (2). The purity of the synthesized aspirin will be tested by using FeCl3 test where a purple color will determine the presence of the phenol group where the -OH group in the benzene ring will form a complex with Fe+3 (3). MATERIALS AND METHODS For the making of aspirin, a water bath with temperature ranging from 70-90Â °C was prepared while weighing 0.150 g of salicylic acid and dropped 85% H2SO4. Then, 0.3 ml of acetic anhydride was added to the reaction mixture and heated with the prepared water bath until it dissolved. Then, it was recrystallized in an ice bath after adding 0.2 ml deionized water. The formed aspirin was collected using vacuum filtration, washed with cold water, allowed to dry overnight and weighed again to calculate for the percentage yield. For the making of the Methylsalicylate, 0.25 g of salicylic acid was used and added 2.0 ml methanol until it dissolved. Then, 10 drops of H2SO4 was added and heated in the water bath for 15 minutes followed by allowing it to cool down in running water. The odor of the product formed was then determined. For the FeCl3, the synthesized aspirin and methylsalicylate were added 5 ml of distilled water and a drop of 1% FeCl3 to the test tubes for observations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Esterification involving salicylic acid and methanol will produce methylsalicylate that has pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects while salicylic acid and acetic anhydride in excess will form acetylsalicylic acid in the presence of H2SO4. The results and observations gathered in the experiment involving the FeCl3 test are summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Data and Results for the Yield of Aspirin and FeCl3 Test A. Yield of Aspirin Mass of Salicylic Acid 0.150 g Mass of acetyl salicylic acid 0.114 g % Yield 57 % B. FeCl3 Test Sample Observation Acetylsalicylic acid Violet-colored Methylsalicylate Liquid; From clear to dark-green solution; Addition of cold water turned into dark purple The aspirin or the acetyl salicylic acid was formed by reacting 0.150 g of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride with the presence of acid catalyst which is H2SO4 to speed up the reaction as well as being responsible in removing the -OH to form an ester. The acid catalyst donates H+ and protonates the salicylic acid as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Reaction of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride Acetic anhydride was used for the reaction will be much faster and will produce a higher percentage yield (5). The reaction mixture was heated in the water bath with temperature between 70-90Â °C to aid in the formation of acetylsalicylic acid crystals and thus making the acetic acid as a byproduct. The salicylic acid dissolved while in the water bath due to the increased heat and increased solubility that made the solution colorless and allowed the salicylic acid white crystals to dissolve. The addition of water after removing the reaction mixture in the water bath aid in destroying the excess acetic anhydride that is unreactive. Then, recrystallization was performed in an ice bath since cooling of the mixture forms white crystals by decreasing its solubility. The aspirin was collected using vacuum filtration while washing it with cold water to separate the solid crystals as well as the removal of impurities in the crystals. After drying, 0.114 g of acetylsalicylic acid was obtaine d with a yield of 57% with calculations shown in Figure 2. Thoretical yield = 0.150 g x x x = 0.20 g Actual yield (Mass of acetyl salicylic acid) = 0.114 g 57%% Yield = x 100 = x 100 = Figure 2. Calculations for the % Yield of the Synthesized Aspirin The methylsalicylate or oil of wintergreen was also formed from salicylic acid where it reacted with methanol in the presence of H2SO4 again for the removal the -OH to form an ester in the reaction called esterification as shown in Figure 3. The sulfuric acid as a catalyst protonates the ester group while the methanol attacks the carbonyl group. As the carbonyl group was deprotonated, methylsalicylate formed. Figure 3. Reaction of salicylic acid with Methanol The product formed a minty odor that is used in food, perfumery, toothpaste, and candies or used as pain-reliever. The purity of the synthesized aspirin and methylsalicylate were tested using FeCl3 to test for the presence of phenol. The acetylsalicylic acid resulted to a violet-colored mixture indicating that the product formed has impurities since the synthesized aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid does not have an OH group, however, it turned violet or dark purple due to the presence of salicylic acid that didnt react purely in the process. On the other hand, methylsalicylate in FeCl3 gave a positive result where it turned dark-green and further into dark-purple due to the presence of phenol thus making the methylsalicylate as a pure product. Over all, the results of the experiment are accurate and useful in appreciating products that occur naturally as well as knowing how to synthesize aspirin and oil of wintergreen from salicylic acid.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay --

Niall Killian Killian 1 Samson 6 Leukemia Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells; it starts in the bone marrow which is the soft tissue inside most bones where blood cells are made. When you are healthy your bone marrow makes red and white blood cells. Red and white blood cells help your body fight infection and carry oxygen to all parts of your body. When you have leukemia, the bone marrow makes a unusual amount of abnormal white blood cells known as leukemia cells. Leukemia cells don't work like normal white blood cells, they grow faster and they don't stop growing when they should. Over time, the leukemia cells crowd out and outnumber the normal blood cells which can lead to serious problems such as anemia, bleeding, and infections. Leukemia cells can also spread to the lymph nodes or other organs causing serious swelling and pain. Many wonder how one acquires leukemia and is it genetic. The answer is yes and no, various connections between heredity and leukemia has been found due to the few Leukemia causing factors that are inherited. Scientists have researched to see if there is any connection with external causes, but there is no relationship between external causes and leukemia. The cause for leukemia is still unknown. An experiment was conducted in the UK in 2010 where they tested if leukemia was more common in males or females. In males, it is the 9th most common cancer and in females it was the 10th most common cancer. That year there were 8,257 new cases of leukemia in the UK, 4,816 were men and 3,441 were women. It varies for age groups as well. 62% of cases were diagnosed in men and women over the age of 65, and only 10% were diagnosed to men and women under the age of 35. The reason why Leukemia is more common i... ...p 1 and gap 2. Due to this the cell divides at a unnatural rate and causes many mutations. Cancer always starts with just one cell dividing at a rapid rate due to external or genetic factors, and while genetic factors are uncontrollable, most forms of cancer can be avoided by for example using sunscreen to avoid UV rays or choosing not to smoke. Some cancers are simply not avoidable like Leukemia, but if you keep a close eye on it, it is treatable especially if it is caught early. The symptoms of Leukemia are good indicators that your body is not healthy, so you shouldn’t pass off confusion, vomiting, or seizures as anything not important especially if you have a family history of cancer. Over 38,000 patients are diagnosed with leukemia each year and it can happen to anybody, so regular blood tests are highly recommended because the sooner you find out, the better.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Cold War :: essays research papers

At the conclusion of the WWII Germany was divided into 4 zones of occupation controlled by Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Berlin, the capital of Germany, was located in the Soviet controlled section of Germany. Lack of agreement and compromise with the Soviet Union concerning the unity of Germany led to the beginning of the Cold War.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The term Cold War was first used by an American Financier Bernard Baruch in a congressional debate in 1947. A cold war can be defined as a condition of tension and conflict short of an actual war as was the case with America and the Soviet Union. In June 1948 the three allies, France, Great Britain, and the United States, established the German Federal Republic in West Germany, which they controlled. The Soviet Union however opposed any government run by any western powers and took many measures to prevent this new government from staying in power. On June 24, 1948 the soviets began a blockade of all land traffic to the western zone of Berlin, hoping to starve it of supplies and perhaps breaking down. But the US, France, and Great Britain, would not back down to the Soviets and so they began to airlift all supplies to West Germany. After about a year on May 12, 1949 the soviets realized their defeat and ended the blockade.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The United States realized that the soviets expansionist aims threatened not only Europe but developing nations of the world as well. So in 1949 President Truman approved the Point Four Program which put aside nearly $400 million for technical development in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Truman had the idea that if these developing countries would modernize and strengthen their economies the growth of communism would be discouraged. In 1949 the United States joined with 11 other western nations in an alliance to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) which provided collective security in Europe and any other part of the world but the main goal was to contain communism. Shortly after the Soviet Union and seven other European nations joined to form an opposing alliance under the Warsaw Pact. Now practically the entire world was involved. Truman struck fear into people’s hearts when in September of 1949 he announced that the soviets had successf ully exploded an atomic bomb.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Meanwhile back in the United States fear of the Soviet Union and communism were rapidly growing.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Evolutionary Theory: The Relationship Between Science and Religion :: Evolution

Evolutionary Theory: The Relationship Between Science and Religion In "The Selfish Gene" (1), Dawkins introduced the concept of replicating units of information, called "memes". They compete for our minds and our hearts, replicating in society in the form of fairy tales, catchy tunes, moral codes and theories. One of the most prolific struggles today occurs between the titanic memes of Science and Religion. While their relationship is complex, its historical trajectory is one of co-evolution, mapping the gradual accumulation of adaptive responses to each other. As these stories change, so too do our networks of meaning. Uneasy bedfellows In considering the Christian faith (not more important than any other, but one that I am familiar with), the role of religion is typically perceived as one of moral guidance. Before science arrived on the scene in the West, however, religion also served an explanatory function, as through the Bible's story of creation. This role did not fade into the background when a fledgling science was first established. As a matter of fact, scientific endeavors were appropriated by natural theologians funded by the Church (for example, through the 19th century Bridgewater Treatises (2)) to prove the existence of God through the manifestations of intelligent design in nature. Gradually, science began to develop its own philosophy and methodologies. It even began to provide new answers to the "how" questions that religion had previously addressed. Then came evolution. In 1859, the publication of Darwin's "Origin of Species" (3) held a magnifying glass to the fissure that had been growing. The two giants found themselves playing with different sets of rules. Revelation and faith, fundamental 'methodologies' in religion, were simply unacceptable to science. Lovers' spat Although religion relegated control of explanation and began to focus on spirituality and values, the conflict is far from resolved. Dawkins (4), like many other proponents of science, simply believes that religion is obsolete. Learning and knowledge, he argues, will clear the cobwebs in our minds that gave rise to religion in the first place. Others have proposed science as a new agnostic religion (5) and moral system (6), praising its commitment to evidence and philosophy of deduction. Those in agreement have raised their own Big Questions (7) from within the ranks of the natural and social sciences, as well as the humanities. Discussions in the World Question Centre (8), for example, range from democracy and complexity to sustainability and fear.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Ambition as a Theme in Macbeth

In todays society, different themes such as ambition, good vs. evil, and believing in superstitions are still prevalent. Similar to Macbeth, many people will go great lengths in order to achieve their goals in life. Some are consumed with ambition to the point where it doesn't matter what the consequences are for their actions as long as they are satisfied. An example of this is seen when our economy fell into a deep recession as a result of ambitious business people. Good vs. evil is oftentimes viewed in todays society through our Justice system.It is this constant battle between the police and criminals that keep our society at balance. Superstitions play a big part in some cultures and are still prevalent in todays society. Just like Macbeth, people follow these superstitions that are put into their mind. They believe that there will be a bad outcome so, they follow these superstitions to keep out of danger or bad fortune. When the three witches informed Macbeth about his prophesy he was in shock but felt anxious for it to happen sooner than later.The ambition that made him want to fulfill that prophesy took a lot of wrong doing but he went ahead and did it anyways. The fact that his wife's ambition for Macbeth was even stronger than his own and encourages him even more to make that prophesy come true. In todays society there are many ambitious people out there because without ambition people wouldn't get very far and would Just give up. For high school teenagers their ambition may be wanting to attend a college of their choice and will work hard in order to omplete their goal.Along with ambition, violence is also s recurring theme in Macbeth because there was a murder in basically every act. Throughout the play there is a lot of killing, fighting and blood, which are all results of violence. No matter how much we wish violence wasn't around in todays society it is still present because of the disagreement between two parties. War is a big factor of violence because two countries or whoever cant come to an agreement so they result in violence.

Etruscan Women

Etruscan Women: An Analysis of Larissa Bofante’s Article The comparisons between the Etruscan, Greek, and Roman way of life are similar in many respects and each contributes to the other, however, each civilization has its differences. The Etruscan society in the 5th to 7th c. BCE was one of luxury, lust, innovation, and they are thought to have been very skilled technicians: these attributes made them stand out among the rest.Larissa Bofante’s article, Daily Life and After Life, points out these distinguishing factors of the Etruscan society that left everyone else envious to what they had, even though most thought them to live barbarically. In Bofante’s article she discusses all aspects of the Etruscan life, from architecture, jewelry, art, religion, sex, wealth, festivities, and more in all great detail. An important aspect that Bofante chooses to discuss in her article is the role of women in the Etruscan society, and this is very important to know when learn ing about their culture.In this analysis, I plan to maintain, as Bofante points out, that women were of much greater importance in the Etruscan culture than in Greece and Rome. Larissa Bofante’s article Daily Life and After Life highlights many points about the Etruscan way of life, and the part that I found to be the most interesting was about Etruscan women. There is substantial evidence to show that they were held at high regard and were considered equal to men.Bofante points out a few passages written from Greek writers and historians who depict scenes of the Etruscan life, she argues that while these may be â€Å"cliche†, the information may have come from eye witness accounts of Greeks who travelled to Etruria: of these scholars there was Theopompus, a Greek Historian of the 4th century BCE and Athenaeus, a Greek writer in 200 AD. Atheneus has a passage written in his book titled, Brilliant Dinner Party Conversation, about women and men dining together and sharin g in multiple sex partners.Women would always dine with their husbands and be seen together in many other aspects of daily life, this was seen as distasteful to the Greeks and was in contrast to the way Greek women acted; the mingling of sexes in this way was not respected in Greek society. Besides the written text, we can see this â€Å"mingling of the sexes† in the art that was coming out of Etruria at that time. Tombs and sarcophagi depicted scenes of festivities and events; Bofante mentions the Sarcophagus of Ramtha Visnai Vulci, with married couple in bed 300 c.BCE. This sarcophagus shows a husband and wife lying with one another, which is a common scene for Etruscan artwork. One of the more famous tomb drawings (not mentioned by Bofante) is the Tomb of the Leopards 480 c. BCE. In this scene, elite men and women are joined together for a banquet, and the woman are not slave girls as in the Greek depictions of similar scenes, they are instead eating alongside the men and celebrating as equals. Etruscan women also had luxurious items like jewels, clothes and toiletries such as mirrors.These mirrors depicted similar scenes on them, all with men and women being displayed together, often married couples together at banquet, and also at home such as the Engraved Mirror with couple standing before a double bed 500 c. BCE. This life style, as stated by Bofante, was seen as â€Å"breach of Greek culture and good taste†, which just further shows the different society that Etruscans had and the role of women in it. Another element in Bofante’s article regarding the high rank of women in the Etruscan culture was that of giving names.A Roman woman for example had no name of her own but was known by her father’s name, this was not the way it was for the Etruscan women however. Bofante mentions that Etruscan funerary inscriptions had the mothers name as well as the father’s name of the deceased on them, and some tomb facades even had w omen’s names alone, which indicates that Etruscan women could own property. All of this shows the â€Å"legal and social importance of Etruscan women. † Larissa Bofante’s article Daily Life and Afterlife, mentions many elements of what we believe the Etruscan society was like.Her article was very factual and listed many aspects of Etruscan life such as architecture, artifacts, mirrors, jewelry, daily activities and more. From depictions and imagery on tombs, mirrors, vases, and written text we can put the pieces together about how they lived. One conclusion that Bofante comes to, as well as many others including myself, is that women of the elite group were thought of as equals to men, or at least they were treated as such.Women attended many events with men and sat alongside them during festivities and banquets, and the husband and wife were shown together in a variety of scenes. Women may have even owned property, and their name was of importance. All of these aspects of Etruscan women highly contrast with what we know about Roman and Greek women. While Bofante discussed many interesting aspects of Etruscan life, the role of women was very important and was a crucial element in her article.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Assessing what appears to be the use of LAMP in Eduardo Gamarra’s CVA

In January 2003, Eduardo Gamarra and his research team set out to lend their professional and academic expertise in mitigating the probable causes of Bolivian conflicts through the Conflict Vulnerability Assessment or CVA of Bolivia (Gamarra, 2003, p. 1). Assessing the possible causes of conflicts in Bolivia will stop the ongoing threats to countrywide instability.The Bolivian instability may have started and peeked during the 2002 elections where parties started to clamor for position by entering into party coalitions; due to this, the majority vote that should have been echoed as the Bolivian democracy has been counterproductive to insure the satisfaction of party coalition based interests (Gamarra, 2003, p. 4). Through the CVA, Gamarra deems that it is possible to predict possible events that could turn into violent confrontations by taking into account the premises set by the present Bolivian political landscape.In relation to the main objectives of this research paper, Eduardo G amarra’s preemptive and predictive research to address future Bolivian conflicts will be assessed through the methodology that Gamarra employed in his research. As of this point, Gamarra’s CVA appears to employ predictive methodologies in its attempts to prevent the occurrence of violent confrontations in Bolivia. Furthermore, CVA appears to follow conventions of predictive research such as those prescribed in LAMP. As the center of this research paper, Lockwood Analytical Method of Prediction (LAMP) is one of the widely used predictive research methodologies (LAMP, 2010, p.n. pag. ). This methodology offers a new methodological approach from the conventional quantity based projections in predictive researches (LAMP, 2010, p. n. pag. ). LAMP can be assumed as the methodology used by Gamarra in CVA since CVA is also highly predictive in terms of its generalizations. This research paper will assess whether Gamarra’s CVA as a predictive work follows the guidelines set by LAMP. By qualifying the CVA parts and foci with the twelve steps prescribed in LAMP, this paper seeks to fulfill its objective and deems that a definitive conclusion is possible to arrive at. Gamarra as a follower of LAMP as seen in his CVATo conclusively qualify whether Gamarra used the LAMP method in writing the CVA would require the tedious work of identifying whether the part of the LAMP are present in the CVA. This task is impeded by the fact that the final format of the CVA does not have the same labels as the LAMP; at least not as blatant. However, the idea that Gamarra used the LAMP in his CVA can be seen through the parts that his CVA put so much attention on (which follows LAMP prescriptions). These parts appears to have been presented in the CVA; these parts entails almost fifty percent accordance to the prescribe methodology in LAMP.In the whole CVA, the issue that holds the most bearing is the mitigation and prevention of conflicts in Bolivia. Gamarra and his tea m was more than solid in reiterating that the CVA will focus on Bolivia as a conflict prone country. This is the reason why Gamarra and his team spent a lot of time in trying to predict the possibilities of the occurrence of conflicts. Through the extensive research facts presented in the paper, it can even be said that the whole CVA seeks to answer one primary question, â€Å"What are the probable reasons that would cause conflicts to arise in Bolivia?† The CVA tried to find the answer for this question by grouping the conflicts in Bolivia in five major classifications, institutional, economic, land, coca/cocaine, and citizen and public security (Gamarra, 2003, p. 4). In the CVA, Gamarra and his team identified two major actors that can very much affect the outcome of the conflict resolution and mitigation in Bolivia- government and opposition. The MNR or Nationalist Revolutionary Movement represents the government; while the MAS or Movimiento al Socialismo leads the opposit ion. CVA attributed that these parties are the main actors in the Bolivian politics and conflicts.Misunderstandings and apathy between these two parties can easily translate the strong political divide to violent confrontations (Gamarra, 2003, p. 4). However, the CVA did not dismiss the possibility that the 2002 elections can also improve the conflict situation through these parties (Gamarra, 2003, p. 4). The government and the opposition perceive the issues of conflict in terms of their participations on the issues. The government side pride themselves in terms of the international economic and security support it has (Gamarra, 2003, p. 6).On the other hand, the opposition takes pride in the intermediation they are able to contribute to the conflict resolution process (Gamarra, 2003, p. 6). In the CVA Gamarra and his team provided contextualizing facts that would put the MAS led opposition and MNR led government in their places in the conflict situation. This attempt can be seen wi th the graphical representation that Gamarra and his team presented to show the divided opinions of the national actors regarding the appropriate type of government in Bolivia (Gamarra, 2003, p. 14).Gamarra further contextualized the conflicts in terms of the partisan opinion in considering the plausibility of military uprising (coup d’etat) in installing new types of government that parties see as more fitting to Bolivia (Gamarra, 2003, p. 12). Even if Gamarra and his team are loyal to LAMP in these parts of CVA, there are other parts of CVA that show that the CVA was not exclusively written through LAMP. The Contradictions, Shortcomings and Disloyalties of CVA to LAMP As said earlier, the CVA appears to be written through the LAMP; this can hold for the almost fifty percent of the CVA.However, in terms of the data gathering and presentation part of the CVA Gamarra and his team took a different path apart from LAMP. This claim can be supported with the different formulation of the conflict scenarios in the CVA when compared to the LAMP. In LAMP, the permutations of the alternative futures (z) follow a strict formula XY=Z that is determined by the number of actors (x) and the numbers of major scenarios (y) (LAMP, 2010, p. n. pag. ). The formula basis of LAMP insures uniformity in terms of the numbers of scenarios that would be required in predicting through certain national actors.In the CVA there are five major scenarios provided (counter narcotics, political institutions, citizen and public security, economic arena and land ownership). Raising the two identified actors by the five major scenarios will require thirty-two scenarios. On the other hand, the CVA was only able to provide 16 scenarios under the five major scenarios. Another shortcoming of the CVA was its failure to conduct proper pair wise comparison among the scenarios; this resulted to different scenarios provided under the five major scenarios.The scenarios of citizen and public security have four scenarios as compared to the three scenarios of all of the remaining major scenarios (counter- narcotics, political institutions, economic arena and land ownership. Due to the absence of a pair wise comparing mechanism, the CVA also lacks the qualifications of probabilities that are determined through â€Å"votes† from comparing pair wise. These characteristics of the CVA deviated by twenty- five percent from the total twelve steps prescribed in LAMP.On the other hand, CVA delivered the remaining twenty-five percent of LAMP in accordance to the prescriptions of LAMP. Gamarra and his team provided the needed information to establish consequential analysis, which the step 9 of LAMP prescribed. The steps 10, 11 and 12 are also included in the CVA through the imaginative conclusion presented in the CVA. The high dependency rate of the Gamarra and his team’s conclusion with the numbers presented by the graphical representations follow the predictive nature of LAMP . Conclusion and RecommendationsTaking into account all of the investigations presented in this research paper it can be concluded that the Conflict Vulnerability Assessment of Bolivia is a hybrid research in terms of the methodologies it employed. The seventy five percent of the CVA was written in accordance with LAMP, but the twenty five percent of CVA does not coincide with the quantitative requirements of LAMP. The difference between LAMP and the methodology employed in CVA does not imply that the CVA is a failed predictive research. CVA’s use of different methods only show the flexibility that Gamarra and his team sought to establish in the CVA.Given this conclusion, this paper would recommend improvements for the two major aspects of the CVA- structure and methodology. It is recommendable that the CVA would use a paper structure or format that is more accessible in answering specific aspects of predictive research. The current arrangement of the CVA tends to make the is sue of Bolivian conflict too broad to discuss and even solve. The discussions without the recommended segmentation appear not only to be reiterating but also to be too general since the reference focal points overlap each other (as seen in the presentation of the scenarios).On the other hand, the methodology employed with the CVA appears to be improvable in terms of making the quantitative aspect of the methodology isolated and only catered as additional empirical references. A qualitative research method is probably more fitting to the undeniable culture sensitive and politics laden conflicts in Bolivia. Eduardo Gamarra and his team could have broken away from the conventions of quantitative predictive research by providing more vivid narrative accounts of the current and predicted conflict situations instead of standing on the methodological position of LAMP.The quantitative elaborateness in LAMP makes the quantitative shortcomings in CVA either half-truths or irrelevant; both pro babilities could have avoided if the CVA was treated as a qualitative research. Bibliography Gamarra, E. A. (2003). Conflict Vulnerability Assessment Bolivia. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from www. digitalcommons. flu. edu: http://digitalcommons. fiu. edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi? article=1002&context=laccwps LAMP. (2010). The Application of LAMP. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from www. lamp-method. org: http://www. lamp-method. org/2. html

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Marketing Segmentation of Tata Nano in India and Its Targeting and Positioning Strategy.

Contents Market Segmentation, Positioning, Targeting: A case of Tata Nano in India EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Targeting and positioning strategy of Tata Nano and recommendations for the company are given. INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND: According to Howard and Sheth (1969, p. 70), â€Å"market segmentation depends on the idea that the company should segment or divide the market in such a way as to achieve sets of buyers† Historically sellers were engaged in mass marketing. They were into the mass production, mass promotion and mass distribution of one product to all consumers in order to obtain economies of scale. This approach of marketing segmentation made the producers to compete against their competitors in terms of products and services. Kotler says â€Å"the product differentiation is to provide variety to the buyers rather than to appeal to different segments†. DISCUSSION: CRITICISM OF MARKETING SEGMENTATION: When the size of the market is so small to do marketing When a brand is a dominant brand in the market. When more number of people falls in the same category. Most of the brands do not operate within the same segment. Certain brands cannot fit into a particular segment which is a drawback to this strategy. In very small businesses and brands this strategy will not work and it is not possible. CASE OF TATA NANO IN INDIA AND ITS MARKET SEGMENTATION: Tata Motors is the leading automobile manufacturer in India with a huge portfolio which includes trucks, passenger cars, buses, and utility vehicles. Even though there are many products from Tata Motors an interesting case of Tata Nano is discussed further. Generally Tata Motors follow the marketing segmentation concept and they have succeeded which already prevails in the history. Tata Nano which comes under the passenger car segment was launched in January 2008. India’s passenger car segment has been grown extraordinarily for the past four years and it was the clever strategy of Ratan Tata to launch a product in that segment. Heading to the marketing segmentation of Tata Nano is quite interesting. Tata Nano is specially designed and manufactured for the middle class and lower middle class people in India (Interview of Ratan Tata). Marketing Segmentation for Tata Nano: Geographic: rural areas, semi urban areas, small towns, large cities and metropolitans. Demographic: Age group: people of age group above 18 (as the legal age for driving in India is 18) Size of family: family size not more than 5. Psychographic and Behavioural: ANALYSIS OF TATA NANO’S MARKETING SEGMENTATION: From the above segmentation variables and how Tata Nano is segmented, it is clear that the manufacturer wants his product to be used by almost everyone in all geographic conditions. In demographic segment the income group of $220 can easily purchase this car is mentioned. But again they say this can also suit the people who own cars already for the sake of increasing the count which adds privilege to them as well as their status. Even in the occupation category, it is mentioned that right from students to any profession person can use Nano which again puts a lot of people in the category. TARGETING AND POSITIONING OF TATA NANO: Tata Nano’s targeting strategy starts from its tag line â€Å"The people’s Car† and â€Å"the world’s inexpensive car†. Tata Nano is segmented to the middle class and lower middle class people who had only dreamt about cars which also include the people who earn $220 per month. Their target customers are those who are extremely price conscious and have low latitude of acceptability. Industry wise they target the two wheeler industry, three wheeler industry (which are more costly than nano), public transports as well to an extent. Hence pricing is their most effective targeting strategy. (Admap magazine, www. warc. com/admap) Positioning of Tata Nano is solely based on its price which may also become a drawback to them in future. Tata Nano is well positioned which will be doing a marketing for the entire Tata Motors. As Nano will be the first car of many customers there will be a possibility of customers to follow Tata Motors if they have a good value for money product and good customer relationship management. As mentioned Nano will be the first car people will surely change their car and that might be possibly for another car in Tata Motors itself. Moreover Tata is also got a wide range of cars which are durable and better quality which suits Indian roads. (NDTV news) {draw:frame} {draw:rect} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} draw:frame} {draw:frame} CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The marketing segmentation concept is a good strategy in marketing but not applicable for all industries, services or products. Nano is got a good segmentation and its well targeted and positioned. As Nano is targeting people with its price strategy, in future due to some inflation if value of money increases they might not be able to con vince their customers. Tata is a good reliable brand in India and now the positioning of Nano as the first car of many people will surely help them in growing their Tata Motors organisation. REFERENCES: Caroline Tynan and Jennifer Drayton, Journal of marketing management, 1987, 2, No 3, 301-335. Smith, W. R. (1956), â€Å"Product differentiation and market segmentation as alternative marketing strategies†, _Journal of Marketing, _2J (3), pp. 3-8. Baker, M. J. (Ed) (1984), Macmillan Dictionary of Marketing and Advertising, London, Macmillan. Haley, R. L (1968), â€Å"Benefit segmentation: A decision-oriented research tool†, Journal_ of_ Marketing, 32(3), pp. 30-35. Chisnall, P. M. (1985), Marketing: A Behavioural Analysis (2nd edition). Maidenhead, Berkshire, McGraw-Hill UK Ltd. Lunn. T. (1978), â€Å"Segmenting and constructing markets†. In: Consumer Market Research Handbook (2nd edition) (Eds. ) Worcester, R. M. and Downham, J. , London, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. (UK) Ltd. , pp. 343-376. Haley, R. L (1968), â€Å"Benefit segmentation: A decision-oriented research tool†, _Journal of_ Marketing, 32(3), pp. 30-35. Siddharth Vinayak Patankar, (2009), â€Å"_NDTV’s review of the Tata Nano_†, NDTV Profit Online, [http://profit. ndtv. com/2009/03/23220600/How-does-the-Tata- Nano-drive. html]. www. tatanano. inservices. tatamotors. com Joseph Sassoon, Admap magazine, www. warc. com/admap.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Business Model and Strategic Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Business Model and Strategic Plan - Essay Example Through this combo-meal product, the larger number of consumers can be enticed to try out the new Starbucks product. A significant amount of advertising would have to be included in this strategy in order to inform the target population of the new product (Cravens and Piercy, 2008). These advertising can simply come in the form of posters displayed in front of the Starbucks stores, and made visible to everyone. Advertisements would also have to be taken out in newspapers, magazines, and the social media. Television advertisements would also help inform a larger population about the new Starbucks product (Cravens and Piercy, 2008). The advertisement would also have to emphasize on the uniqueness of the new product for Starbucks, and all the perks and benefits it can offer the clients. It is important for the new product to stand apart from other combo-meals of other business establishments (Rust,, 2004). The advertisement can present a variety of combination meals of sandwiches and coffee for the customers to choose from. The advertisement can also appeal immediately to individual consumer tastes, including the vegetarians, the vegans, or those who have cultural preferences in their meals. The bottom line of the advertisements is that the new product for Starbucks is one which serves the needs of the consumers satisfactorily (Rust,, 2004). It is also important to test the new product and its viability in the market. This can be done through research. A research can be carried out covering the possible target population. This target population would be invited to Starbucks and would be invited to test the new product. Posters of the new product would be displayed outside the stores (Zeithaml,, 2006). The research would note if the respondents would opt for the combo meal, and what type of meal they would choose. Feedback on the quality and the value for money

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Legalisation of Sex Work Outline Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Legalisation of Sex Work - Outline Example The Policing and Crime Act 2009 delineates stringent liability offence criminalising customers of sex workers that are subjected to mistreatment. These provisions were intended to decrease demand for sex workers, hence associated human trafficking. The Policing and Crime Act 2009 further introduced soliciting offences in Northern Ireland, Wales, and England. The legislation, therefore, prohibits imploring a person in public places like streets and parks to get sexual services from the individual as a sex worker. Law in Netherlands Criminal Code 8, a legislative piece that banned brothels, was lifted in the year 2000. The lift made way for regulation of sex work under both labour and administrative laws. This ban lift also made it possible for the government to treat sex work as ordinary labour. The Dutch Penal Code also ceased to treat prostitution by adult males or females as a crime following the landmark 2000 change. This applies provided the sex worker consents to the transaction . This implies that it is legal for a person to operate a prostitution business, as long as it involves consenting adults aged 18 and above. The current legislative piece 273f CC9 deems certain elements of sex work criminal. These include violence or threat of aggression, coercion, deception, and abuse of power regarding both recruitment and working conditions. These elements, combined with undesirable forms of sex work like involuntary sexual exploitation of minors, are more strictly penalised under the current law in Netherlands.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Analytic Hierarchy Process artical review and comparison Essay

Analytic Hierarchy Process artical review and comparison - Essay Example According to the article, a business process strategy is designed in such a way that success is achieved in the financial sector of the organization, in satisfying the requirements of the customer, in successfully implementing the internal operations of the organization as well as in managing the human resources of the organization. In order to achieve success in these perspectives, there is an essential need for choosing an efficient program that promotes an improvement in the business process. The process of making such a choice is the area where AHP comes into action. Since the context of the business process is liable to change according to the needs of the organization, it is important to choose a method that is reliable in the longer run of the organization. (David, Kendrick & Saaty, 2007) This is where years of experiments done by Tom Saaty come for help in the form of AHP. According to his perspectives, AHP is advantageous in the following ways: AHP is designed in such a way that it allows the management to make high valued strategic decisions and its hierarchical design allows them to develop measuring techniques that determine the differences observed in the strategic alignment. Priorities are assigned not by taking the financial considerations alone, but also including the perspectives of the other stakeholders.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Future Of Furniture Companies With Blue Ocean Strategy Essay

Future Of Furniture Companies With Blue Ocean Strategy - Essay Example The water is becoming redder as stores try to win customer dollars. To endure at all, it is not sufficient that the company is good; but it has to be something beyond being good. Blue Oceans has to be created and cultivated so that companies will succeed. Following Blue Ocean, strategies are not pipe dreams. Accurately carried out, they are practical, restricted risk strategies for methodically following and conquering unchallenged Blue Oceans. A very good example of furniture retailers who used Blue Ocean strategies to their benefits is the IKEA. It is an American retailer of furniture. Before IKEA entered the furniture market, the retailers like Thomasville, Rooms To Go etc., believed in high priced furniture and retaining their old customers by providing them with lots of services. But IKEA did not believe in such a strategy. IKEA extended reasonably priced furniture with a good assortment and above average quality followed with little customer service. This helped IKEA to create a blue ocean for them and they became the single retailer of low priced high selection furniture.The company eliminated the idea of retaining old customers by trying to reach customers who were new. In addition, to this IKEA also can create new customers by not focusing on customer differences; instead, they can develop on the powerful commonness’s in what buyer’s measure. 's in what buyer's measure. This will help the companies to develop beyond the existing demand and create more demand thus bringing in customers who were not there before (Kim W.C. et all, 2005.Pp 101-102). There is yet another area of Blue Ocean, which IKEA can venture in the future. Sometimes some companies are prepared to challenge the functional-emotional direction of their industry; they frequently find new market space. It can be observed that sometimes many companies offer many additional products with the main product, but if these additions are stripped off and the actual product is provided at a lesser cost, then such an act would surely bring in more customers. On the other hand, functional sloping industries can repeatedly instill commodity products with new life by contributing a dosage of sentiment and, in so doing, can rouse new demand (Kim W.C. et all, 2005.Pp.69-70). In the same way, IKEA instead of giving any additional product or service can just sell their main products for lesser cost thus bringing in more and more customers. Yet another success for IKEA is through creation and this is through its instruction booklets, which is released with every assembly-required item that a consumer buys from the store. In these instruction booklets, IKEA attempts to demonstrate the process instead of explaining it in words. In reality sometimes, the instructions are with out any words at all. This is done just to show or emphasize the ease with which to construct IKEA furniture and this way the furniture company can save on translation costs too. Furniture companies can also look across its alternative industries. For furniture, stores new retail outlets in places where there are no such shops will have to be developed. Innovations on the part of the furniture manufacturers will create Blue Oceans for them. They will have to look beyond their industry and seek alternatives (Kim W.C. et all, 2005.Pp 49-50). IKEA furniture can also secure its future by reducing its cost of production by a method called collaborating. This way the company can meet its target cost easily. Actually,

Monday, September 9, 2019

Staphylococcus aureus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Staphylococcus aureus - Essay Example This test also helped in identifying the resistance of staphylococcus against certain antibiotics revealing the mechanisms used in developing the resistance such as enzyme production. Staphylococcus aureus are spherical, gram positive non spore forming with 0.5- 1Â µm long bacteria as viewed under microscope. In 1988, S.aureus was first discovered in Aberdeen by Alexanda Ogston. Determination of Staphylococcus follows an observation in solidified medium such as nutrient agar and selective medium manitolagar. This bacteria is salt tolerant. From the main genus staphylococcus there are 32 species of which 11 are harmful and can be spread causing diseases in human body. The most common of these diseases causing staphylococcus are S.aureus and S.epidermis. Growth rate and survival of Staphylococcus is affected by a number of factors including temperatures, PH, Oxygen and water present (Stewart, 2003). Staphylococcus ureus have been found to posses the ability to live in both aerobic and anaerobic environment. Staphylococcus gain entrance into the body through causing open lesion skin that is mostly red, swollen and painful. When they enter the blood vessel, staphylococcus multiplies and releases toxins that cause life threatening complications such as septic shock and endocarditis complication of heart (Gwendolyn, 1996). Studies on these bacteria have shown that people who suffer from particular diseases including diabetes, people with chronic kidney diseases, people with cancer therapy, skin burns are more susceptible of getting the Staphylococcus aureus infection. Additionally, people with transplanted organs also depict high susceptibility to infections from staphylococcus aureus since they take immune suppressive drugs. Staphylococcus aureus can be found on the noses of up to 25 percent of healthy people , in which case it remain harmless but when it gain entrance into the blood stream it causes diseases such as septic shock and meningitis

Sunday, September 8, 2019

GLUT4 glucose transporter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

GLUT4 glucose transporter - Essay Example The generalised form of this reaction is written as follows There are three types of sugar transporters that carry sugars across the plasma membrane in to the cells. First are the energy independent facilitated diffusion transporters such as the glucose transporters family(GLUT) of hexose transporters seen in yeast and in mammalian cells. These proteins are encoded by SLC2A genes(solute carriers 2A). Second are the energy dependent transporters for example sodium dependent glucose transporters(SGLT) encoded by SLC5A genes in the intestine and in kidney epithelial cells. The third type of transporters couple ATP dependent phosphorylation with sugar import and are seen in bacteria. This family of glucose transporters were first discovered in yeast where 18 genes have been identified. Humans have 14 GLUT homologs. All of the yeast glucose transporters are of the same size(40-55 Kilodaltons) and have similar structures containing 12 membrane spanning domains. These domains form a barrel with a small pore for the sugar to pass through. The only "sugar transport signatures" are a few widely scattered glycine and tryptophan residues and one PET tri-peptide sequence The elevated levels of blood sugar and amino acids that occur following a meal signal pancreatic beta cells to release insulin into the bloodstream. Once in the vascular system, circulating insulin markedly enhances glucose transport into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, the peripheral sites responsible for the majority of postprandial glucose disposal. In response to insulin, glucose enters muscle and fat cells through aqueous pores formed by the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein. GLUT4 is the fourth of 13 members of a family of facilitative sugar transporters and is the only iso-form that is widely accepted as being insulin-responsive. Like other GLUT family members, GLUT4 is a 12 trans-membrane protein; unlike most other isofoms, GLUT4 is predominantly localized to intracellular compartments in the basal state. Activation of the insulin receptor triggers a large increase in the rate of GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis and a concomitant decrease in the rate of endocytosis. This insulin-dependent shift in GLUT4 vesicle trafficking results in a net increase of GLUT4 protein at the cell surface, thus allowing glucose to enter target cells. Once

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Relationship Between Parent and Child Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Relationship Between Parent and Child - Essay Example Julie, as known by her father, started out as a â€Å"warm, sensitive, sweet child and very easy going† child. She was a bubbly little girl who was curious and creative and had a very positive disposition. Her profile was painted by her father with loving words, projecting an ideal daughter that brought her parents much joy and pride. This kind of personality usually results from having a secure attachment with her parents while growing up. In the first few years of life, a child with a secure attachment can learn how to balance separation and reunion. She is unafraid when she gets separated from her parents, trusting that they will be back for her. On the other hand a child with an insecure attachment to his mother manifests panic, anger and a desperate search for her, thinking that she will never come back. When the mother returns, a host of responses may be observed of the child. Some children would be delighted and warmly embrace the parent; others would appear to be indif ferent, withdrawn, hostile, uncertain or confused. The kind of response the child had led the psychological observers to develop the attachment categories of secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant and disorganized. Schore (2001) claim that infants’ attachment experiences are stored in the early maturing right hemisphere of their brain, which have long term effects on how they cope with stress in the future. Hence, it is suffice to say that attachment is crucial to the emotional development of the child, and this is reflected in Julie’s personality as a child.... He allowed them to make mistakes because from these, they learn too. He claims, â€Å"I never confronted the children directly when they made a mistake, I but always guided them until they got it right. I wanted to enrich their environment in order to boost their self-esteem and their confidence.† This reflects Vygotsky’s (1978) theory of learning where it is believed that children learn within a ‘zone of proximal development’ (ZPD) or the distance between a child’s independent problem-solving level and that obtained under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers (Wertsch, 1985). It is the space between what a child can do by himself and a more challenging level that he can achieve with help from someone. In the case of Julie and her sister, their parents provided ‘scaffolds’ or temporary supports in the process of learning which are gradually taken away when the children are already capable of learning without them. Mo st common conflicts/disagreements/challenges between parent and child Anthony remembers Julie as a very well-behaved child so there weren’t much conflicts or disagreements between them. The only challenging thing that he remembers is her insistence to choose her own clothes every morning, careful not to repeat outfits within close periods of time. If she had no choice but to wear pants two days in a row due to laundry problems, she would throw a fit. â€Å"That is the only time that I can remember when Julie would get mad, scream and cry and go to her room†. Otherwise, it was smooth sailing with Julie because she was quite mature for her age. The misbehaviour that Julie displayed was a manifestation of her growing up into a young lady who wants to prove that she is capable of making her own